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Time variation of ammonia, acetone, isoprene and ethanol in breath: a quantitative SIFT-MS study over 30 days.


A study of the concentrations of the common breath metabolites ammonia, acetone, isoprene, ethanol and acetaldehyde in the breath of five subjects over a period of 30 days has been carried out. Breath samples were taken and analysed in the early morning on arrival at the laboratory. The real time analyses of three consecutive breath exhalations were carried out using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) on line to the instrument. Sufficient data were obtained to allow meaningful concentration distributions to be obtained for ammonia, acetone, isoprene and ethanol. These showed that the ammonia, acetone and isoprene concentrations exhibited sensibly normal distributions, with coefficients of variation of typically 0.3. Obvious and statistically significant (p < 0.01) differences are apparent in the mean concentrations of these metabolites between the five individuals. The acetaldehyde concentrations were relatively low and close to the instrument detection limit, and the differences between the mean concentrations of the five subjects were not statistically significant (p = 0.4), so distributions were not obtained. The mean concentrations, in parts per billion (ppb), of each metabolite range amongst the five subjects are as follows: ammonia, 422-2389: acetone, 293-870; isoprene, 55-121; ethanol, 27-153; acetaldehyde, 2-5. There are no obvious patterns in the distributions of these particular metabolites for these individuals, except that the ammonia levels were greatest in the breath of the two oldest subjects.

Veröffentlicht in: Physiological measurement

Veröffentlicht im: Jan 2003

Estimating the health consequences of replacing cigarettes with nicotine inhalers.


A fast acting, clean nicotine delivery system might substantially displace cigarettes. Public health consequences would depend on the subsequent prevalence of nicotine use, hazards of delivery systems, and intrinsic hazards of nicotine.

Veröffentlicht in: Tobacco control

Veröffentlicht im: May 2003

Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine.


Nicotine is of importance as the addictive chemical in tobacco, pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, a potential medication for several diseases, and a useful probe drug for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). We review current knowledge about the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine, some other naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids, and nicotine analogs that are under development as potential therapeutic agents. The focus is on studies in humans, but animal data are mentioned when relevant to the interpretation of human data. The pathways of nicotine metabolism are described in detail. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of nicotine and related compounds are reviewed. Enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism including cytochrome P450 enzymes, aldehyde oxidase, flavin-containing monooxygenase 3, amine N-methyltransferase, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases are represented, as well as factors affecting metabolism, such as genetic variations in metabolic enzymes, effects of diet, age, gender, pregnancy, liver and kidney diseases, and racial and ethnic differences. Also effects of smoking and various inhibitors and inducers, including oral contraceptives, on nicotine metabolism are discussed. Due to the significance of the CYP2A6 enzyme in nicotine clearance, special emphasis is given to the effects and population distributions of CYP2A6 alleles and the regulation of CYP2A6 enzyme.

Veröffentlicht in: Pharmacological reviews

Veröffentlicht im: Feb 2005

Opinion on the pharmacology and toxicology of an electric cigarette to quit smoking


Opinion on the pharmacology and toxicology of an electric cigarette to quit smoking

Veröffentlicht in: Institut für Pharmazeutische Wissenschaften Pharmakologie und Toxikologie

Veröffentlicht im: Mar 2006

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors allow locomotor and rewarding responses to nicotine.


Although nicotine is generally considered to be the main compound responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco, experimental data indicate that nicotine does not exhibit all the characteristics of other abused substances, such as psychostimulants and opiates. For example, nicotine is only a weak locomotor enhancer in rats and generally fails to induce a locomotor response in mice. This observation contradicts the general consensus that all drugs of abuse release dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, a subcortical structure, and thus increase locomotor activity in rodents. Because tobacco smoke contains monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and decreases MAO activity in smokers, we have combined MAOIs with nicotine to determine whether it is possible to obtain a locomotor response to nicotine in C57Bl6 mice. Among 15 individual or combined MAOIs, including harmane, norharmane, moclobemide, selegiline, pargyline, clorgyline, tranylcypromine and phenelzine, only irreversible inhibitors of both MAO-A and -B (tranylcypromine, phenelzine, and clorgyline+selegiline) allowed a locomotor response to nicotine. The locomotor stimulant interaction of tranylcypromine and nicotine was absent in beta2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit knockout mice. Finally, it was found that, whereas naïve rats did not readily self-administer nicotine (10 microg/kg/injection), a robust self-administration of nicotine occurred when animals were pretreated with tranylcypromine (3 mg/kg). Our data suggest that MAOIs contained in tobacco and tobacco smoke act in synergy with nicotine to enhance its rewarding effects.

Veröffentlicht in: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Veröffentlicht im: Jul 2006