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The action of prazosin and propylene glycol on methoxamine-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects.


The effect of 1 mg inhaled prazosin on bronchoconstriction induced by methoxamine was investigated in seven asthmatic subjects. Prazosin caused significant inhibition of the methoxamine-induced bronchoconstriction in six of the seven patients. These findings suggest that methoxamine produces bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects via stimulation of alpha-adrenoceptors. In previous studies propylene glycol has been used as a vehicle for delivery of prazosin. This substance was found to cause significant inhibition of methoxamine effects and to shift the dose response curve to histamine to the right in four of seven patients.

Veröffentlicht in: British journal of clinical pharmacology

Veröffentlicht im: Aug 1984

Cigarette and nicotine chewing gum toxicity in children.


A prospective review of 51 cases of tobacco ingestion and 5 cases of nicotine resin chewing gum exposure was conducted to evaluate the incidence and degree of toxicity caused by these products in children. A dose-response relationship was observed for cigarette exposures. Nine of 10 children ingesting more than one cigarette or three cigarette butts developed signs or symptoms, while 12 of 24 ingesting lesser amounts became symptomatic (P less than 0.01). Severe symptoms (e.g. limb jerking and unresponsiveness) were only seen with the larger amounts. Nicotine resin gum produced toxicity in 4 of 5 children who chewed 1/2 to 4 pieces. Agitation, lethargy, tachycardia, hypotension, abdominal pain, and vomiting were seen within 30 min of exposure to the gum.

Veröffentlicht in: Human toxicology

Veröffentlicht im: Dec 1987

Acute tolerance to nicotine in smokers: lack of dissipation within 2 hours.


Greater understanding of development and dissipation of acute tolerance to nicotine may help explain temporal patterns of nicotine self-administration in smokers. The time course of dissipation of acute tolerance to nicotine was examined in 16 smokers (8M, 8F) participating in four sessions differing on pretreatment exposure or time interval prior to nicotine (20 micrograms/kg) challenge: placebo 30 min before, or nicotine (20 micrograms/kg) 30, 60, or 120 min before challenge. Nicotine and placebo were administered by measured-dose nasal spray. The measurement battery consisted of subjective, cardiovascular, thermal pain detection, and behavioral performance measures. Results demonstrated significant acute tolerance (i.e. smaller responses to nicotine challenge following nicotine versus placebo pretreatment) for most subjective measures and for heart rate. Acute tolerance dissipated with lengthening inter-dose interval for two subjective measures, dose strength and arousal, but there was no tolerance dissipation for other measures. In contrast, nicotine pretreatment resulted in acute sensitization of finger temperature (vasoconstriction) response, which dissipated with lengthening interval. No acute tolerance was observed for thermal pain detection or performance measures. These findings demonstrate that acute tolerance develops quickly to some subjective and cardiovascular effects of nicotine. However, acute tolerance to most effects did not dissipate over 2 h, suggesting that, following acute tolerance development during initial exposure, most smokers generally obtain similar magnitude of effects from each subsequent nicotine exposure (i.e. cigarettes smoked later in the day).

Veröffentlicht in: Psychopharmacology

Veröffentlicht im: Feb 1995

Influence of nicotine on simulator flight performance in non-smokers.


In a placebo-controlled study, we investigated the influence of nicotine on late-day aviation performance in 15 non-smoking subjects. In a within-subjects design, subjects were tested on 2 days, each lasting 8 h and consisting of three 75-min simulator flights (late-afternoon practice, evening test, night test). Prior to each test, subjects received either nicotine polacrilex 2 mg or placebo gum. As expected, overall performance was significantly better after nicotine, compared to placebo (P < 0.01). Post-hoc analysis of individual flight tasks showed that nicotine improved scores on approach to landing, a task which appears to require sustained attention. We conclude that nicotine may improve late-day flight performance in non-smoking aviators.

Veröffentlicht in: Psychopharmacology

Veröffentlicht im: Oct 1998