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21419142
The monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor tranylcypromine enhances nicotine self-administration in rats through a mechanism independent of MAO inhibition.

Beschreibung:

Our current study aims to evaluate the mechanisms of tranylcypromine (TCP)-mediated enhancement of nicotine self-administration. We replicated our previous findings which demonstrate that 1 h pretreatment with TCP (3 mg/kg, i.p.) enhances nicotine self-administration (7.5 μg/kg/inj, i.v.) when compared with vehicle-treated rodents. We tested whether TCP-mediated enhancement of nicotine self-administration was due to MAO inhibition or off-target effects by (i) extending the TCP pretreatment time from 1 to 20 h, and (ii) evaluating the role of the individual TCP stereoisomers in nicotine self-administration studies. While 20 h and (-)TCP pretreatment induced significant inhibition of MAO (60-90%), animals found nicotine only weakly reinforcing. Furthermore, while both (+) and (±)TCP treatment induced nearly 100% MAO inhibition, (+)TCP pretreated animals took longer to acquire nicotine self-administration compared to (±)TCP pretreated animals. Stable nicotine self-administration in (+)TCP pretreated animals was influenced by nicotinic receptor activation but not nicotine-paired cues. The opposite was found in (±)TCP pretreated animals. Treatment with (-) or (±)TCP increased dopamine and serotonin overflow, while the (+) and (±)TCP treatment enhanced monoamine overflow subsequent to nicotine. Together, our data suggests TCP enhancement of nicotine self-administration are mediated through mechanisms independent of MAO inhibition, including nicotine-paired cues and monoamine uptake inhibition.

Veröffentlicht in: Neuropharmacology

Veröffentlicht im: Oct 2013

25350011
Comparison of select analytes in exhaled aerosol from e-cigarettes with exhaled smoke from a conventional cigarette and exhaled breaths.

Beschreibung:

Exhaled aerosols were collected following the use of two leading U.S. commercial electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and a conventional cigarette by human subjects and analyzed for phenolics, carbonyls, water, glycerin and nicotine using a vacuum-assisted filter pad capture system. Exhaled breath blanks were determined for each subject prior to each product use and aerosol collection session. Distribution and mass balance of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol composition was greater than 99.9% water and glycerin, and a small amount (<0.06%) of nicotine. Total phenolic content in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol was not distinguishable from exhaled breath blanks, while total phenolics in exhaled cigarette smoke were significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol and exhaled breaths, averaging 66 µg/session (range 36 to 117 µg/session). The total carbonyls in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols were also not distinguishable from exhaled breaths or room air blanks. Total carbonyls in exhaled cigarette smoke was significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols, exhaled breath and room air blanks, averaging 242 µg/session (range 136 to 352 µg/session). These results indicate that exhaled e-cigarette aerosol does not increase bystander exposure for phenolics and carbonyls above the levels observed in exhaled breaths of air.

Veröffentlicht in: International journal of environmental research and public health

Veröffentlicht im: Nov 2013

18
The effects of nicotine on human health - Consumer version

Beschreibung:

Smokers’ need for nicotine is not disputed, but it is quite unneces - sary for smokers to sacrice their lives to obtain their nicotine when products other than cigarettes can provide nicotine and can even mimic the act of smoking.Smokers smoke for the nicotine, primarily – but they die from the smoke. Specically, the repeated inhalation and absorption of the toxic and carcinogenic volatile chemicals in the gaseous phase, and condensable substances in the solid phase – tar – eventually take the lives, prematurely, of about two-thirds of chronic smokers. Nicotine is not a carcinogen; and in fact, for the vast majority of smokers it is not toxic. But it is the nicotine that keeps them light -ing up repeatedly over the course of days, weeks, months and years and that causes them to fail repeatedly when they try to quit. And many smokers, even many physicians, continue to falsely believe that nicotine is the main toxicant and cancer-causing agent in smoke. This fallacy needlessly complicates efforts to allow smokers to quit com - bustible tobacco and get nicotine in much less harmful forms.

Veröffentlicht in: American Council on Science and Health

Veröffentlicht im: Jan 2014

19
Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review

Beschreibung:

Electronic cigarettes are a recent development in tobacco harm reduction. They are marketed as less harmful alternatives to smoking. Awareness and use of these devices has grown exponentially in recent years, with millions of people currently using them. This systematic review appraises existing laboratory and clinical research on the potential risks from electronic cigarette use, compared with the well-established devastating effects of smoking tobacco cigarettes. Currently available evidence indicates that electronic cigarettes are by far a less harmful alternative to smoking and significant health benefits are expected in smokers who switch from tobacco to electronic cigarettes. Research will help make electronic cigarettes more effective as smoking substitutes and will better define and further reduce residual risks from use to as low as possible, by establishing appropriate quality control and standards.

Veröffentlicht in: Sage Journals

Veröffentlicht im: Feb 2014

24814944
Effect of smoking abstinence and reduction in asthmatic smokers switching to electronic cigarettes: evidence for harm reversal.

Beschreibung:

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes and have shown to reduce their consumption. Here we report for the first time the effects of e-cigs on subjective and objective asthma parameters as well as tolerability in asthmatic smokers who quit or reduced their tobacco consumption by switching to these products. We retrospectively reviewed changes in spirometry data, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), asthma exacerbations and subjective asthma control in smoking asthmatics who switched to regular e-cig use. Measurements were taken prior to switching (baseline) and at two consecutive visits (Follow-up/1 at 6 (±1) and Follow-up/2 at 12 (±2) months). Eighteen smoking asthmatics (10 single users, eight dual users) were identified. Overall there were significant improvements in spirometry data, asthma control and AHR. These positive outcomes were noted in single and dual users. Reduction in exacerbation rates was reported, but was not significant. No severe adverse events were noted. This small retrospective study indicates that regular use of e-cigs to substitute smoking is associated with objective and subjective improvements in asthma outcomes. Considering that e-cig use is reportedly less harmful than conventional smoking and can lead to reduced cigarette consumption with subsequent improvements in asthma outcomes, this study shows that e-cigs can be a valid option for asthmatic patients who cannot quit smoking by other methods.

Veröffentlicht in: International journal of environmental research and public health

Veröffentlicht im: Apr 2014


   


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