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Gutachten zu e-Zigaretten oder Inhaltsstoffen der Liquids

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23656560
A toxicological review of the propylene glycols.

Beschreibung:

The toxicological profiles of monopropylene glycol (MPG), dipropylene glycol (DPG), tripropylene glycol (TPG) and polypropylene glycols (PPG; including tetra-rich oligomers) are collectively reviewed, and assessed considering regulatory toxicology endpoints. The review confirms a rich data set for these compounds, covering all of the major toxicological endpoints of interest. The metabolism of these compounds share common pathways, and a consistent profile of toxicity is observed. The common metabolism provides scientific justification for adopting a read-across approach to describing expected hazard potential from data gaps that may exist for specific oligomers. None of the glycols reviewed presented evidence of carcinogenic, mutagenic or reproductive/developmental toxicity potential to humans. The pathologies reported in some animal studies either occurred at doses that exceeded experimental guidelines, or involved mechanisms that are likely irrelevant to human physiology and therefore are not pertinent to the exposures experienced by consumers or workers. At very high chronic doses, MPG causes a transient, slight decrease in hemoglobin in dogs and at somewhat lower doses causes Heinz bodies to form in cats in the absence of any clinical signs of anemia. Some evidence for rare, idiosyncratic skin reactions exists for MPG. However, the larger data set indicates that these compounds have low sensitization potential in animal studies, and therefore are unlikely to represent human allergens. The existing safety evaluations of the FDA, USEPA, NTP and ATSDR for these compounds are consistent and point to the conclusion that the propylene glycols present a very low risk to human health.

Veröffentlicht in: Critical reviews in toxicology

Veröffentlicht im: Mar 2013

23576597
Indian dental students' attitudes and practices regarding tobacco cessation counseling.

Beschreibung:

Tobacco cessation counseling (TCC) has been proven to be very effective in helping tobacco users to quit. Dentists can play a vital role in helping patients to quit tobacco use. The aim of this study was to examine five groups of Indian dental students' attitudes and practices regarding TCC. Out of 514 fifth-year students in five colleges of Karnataka, India, 456 students voluntarily participated. The thirty-five-item questionnaire consisted of four sections: demographic characteristics, practices in the institution, attitudes toward tobacco cessation programs in the dental setting, knowledge of tobacco counseling, and perceived barriers in counseling. To test the reliability of the survey items, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used. Frequency distributions and percentages were examined for each item, and chi-square tests were used to analyze differences based on tobacco usage status. The sample consisted of 317 female and 139 male students. The majority of the students (n=429, 94 percent) reported that they give anti-tobacco usage advice to patients who smoke and planned to advise patients about tobacco cessation throughout their careers. Fewer students (n=314, 68.9 percent) indicated that such counseling would assist patients to quit. The major barriers were reported to be patients' resistance, inadequate skills, and poor knowledge about nicotine replacement therapy. This study found that these students had a positive attitude about TCC, along with adequate knowledge regarding the ill effects of tobacco. However, this study concludes that tobacco cessation should be given greater emphasis in the curriculum of Indian dental schools in order to expand the use of TCC in dental practices.

Veröffentlicht in: Journal of dental education

Veröffentlicht im: Mar 2013

23742112
Cytotoxicity evaluation of electronic cigarette vapor extract on cultured mammalian fibroblasts (ClearStream-LIFE): comparison with tobacco cigarette smoke extract.

Beschreibung:

Abstract Context: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are used as alternatives to smoking; however, data on their cytotoxic potential are scarce. Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic potential of 21 EC liquids compared to the effects of cigarette smoke (CS). Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated according to UNI EN ISO 10993-5 standard. By activating an EC device, 200?mg of liquid was evaporated and was extracted in 20?ml of culture medium. CS extract from one cigarette was also produced. The extracts, undiluted (100%) and in five dilutions (50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.125%), were applied to cultured murine fibroblasts (3T3), and viability was measured after 24-hour incubation by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Viability of less than 70% was considered cytotoxic. Results: CS extract showed cytotoxic effects at extract concentrations above 12.5% (viability: 89.1?±?3.5% at 3.125%, 77.8?±?1.8% at 6.25%, 72.8?±?9.7% at 12.5%, 5.9?±?0.9% at 25%, 9.4?±?5.3% at 50% and 5.7?±?0.7% at 100% extract concentration). Range of fibroblast viability for EC vapor extracts was 88.5-117.8% at 3.125%, 86.4-115.3% at 6.25%, 85.8-111.7% at 12.5%, 78.1-106.2% at 25%, 79.0-103.7% at 50% and 51.0-102.2% at 100% extract concentration. One vapor extract was cytotoxic at 100% extract concentration only (viability: 51.0?±?2.6%). However, even for that liquid, viability was 795% higher relative to CS extract. Conclusions: This study indicates that EC vapor is significantly less cytotoxic compared tobacco CS. These results should be validated by clinical studies.

Veröffentlicht in: Inhalation toxicology

Veröffentlicht im: Apr 2013

23703732
E-Cigarettes: Prevalence and Attitudes in Great Britain.

Beschreibung:

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a means of recreational nicotine use that can potentially eliminate the need to smoke tobacco. Little is known about the prevalence of use or smokers' attitudes toward e-cigarettes. This study describes use of and attitudes toward e-cigarettes in Britain. METHODS: Respondents from three surveys were recruited from a panel of adults in Britain. Preliminary online and face-to-face qualitative research informed the development of a smokers' survey (486 smokers who had used e-cigarettes and 894 smokers who had not). Representative samples of adults in Britain were then constructed from the panel for population surveys in 2010 (12,597 adults, including 2,297 smokers) and 2012 (12,432 adults, including 2,093 smokers), generating estimates of the prevalence of e-cigarette use and trial in Great Britain. RESULTS: Awareness, trial, and current use increased between 2010 and 2012; for example, current use more than doubled from 2.7% of smokers in 2010 to 6.7% in 2012. The proportion of ever-users currently using e-cigarettes was around one-third in both years. In 2012, 1.1% of ex-smokers reported current e-cigarette use, and a further 2.7% reported past use. Approximately 0.5% of never-smokers reported having tried e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: While we found evidence supporting the view that e-cigarette use may be a bridge to quitting, we found very little evidence of e-cigarette use among adults who had never smoked. British smokers would benefit from information about the effective use, risks, and benefits of e-cigarettes, as this might enable the use of e-cigarettes to improve public health.

Veröffentlicht in: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Veröffentlicht im: Apr 2013

23602640
Determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Beschreibung:

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was described to detect tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) were compared to each other to select the optimum clean-up method. Under the established condition, the limits of quantification of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) were 0.06, 0.07, 0.06, and 0.04µg/L respectively, by using 0.5mL of replacement liquids, respectively, and the relative standard deviation was less than 10% at concentrations of 5.0 and 25.0µg/L. The concentrations of TSNAs were measured in concentration ranges of 0.34-60.08µg/L (64.8% detection frequency) for NNN, 0.22-9.84µg/L (88.6% detection frequency) for NNK, 0.11-11.11µg/L (54.3% detection frequency) for NNB, and 0.09-62.19µg/L (75.2% detection frequency) for NAT in 105 replacement liquid brands from 11 electronic cigarette companies purchased in the Korean market.

Veröffentlicht in: Journal of chromatography. A

Veröffentlicht im: Apr 2013


   


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